Press the right key for the next slide (or swipe left)
Press the left key to go backwards (or swipe right)
Press n to toggle whether notes are shown (no equivalent if you don't have a keyboard)
Press m or double tap to see a menu of slides
a puzzle about pointing
Contrast apes with humans ...
‘there is not a single reliable observation, by any scientist anywhere, of one ape pointing for another’.
Tomasello 2006, p. 507
footnote: ‘There is actually one reported incident of a bonobo pointing for conspecifics in the wild (Veà and Sabater-Pi 1998)’
Tomasello 2006, footnote 1
‘no apes point declaratively ever.’
Tomasello 2006, p. 510
Why don’t apes point? (Tomasello’s question)
But they do gesture
But they are sensitive to facts about
the goals of others' actions.
A clue: apes don't comprehend declarative pointing ...
Hare & Tomasello 2004
‘to understand pointing, the subject needs to understand more than the individual goal-directed behaviour. She needs to understand that by pointing towards a location, the other attempts to communicate to her where a desired object is located; that the other tries to inform her about something that is relevant for her’
Moll & Tomasello 2007
Why don’t apes point comprehend pointing gestures?
Why don’t 3-month-olds point?
Why don’t apes point?
(And why don’t they understand declarative pointing?)
Because they fail to ‘understand that by pointing towards a location, the other attempts to communicate to her where a desired object is located’ (Moll & Tomasello 2007)
pointing: referent and context
Liebal et al 2009, figure 1
Liebal et al 2009, figure 2
Liebal et al 2009, figure 3
Liebal et al 2009, figure 4